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The discovery of natural RNA catalysts has prompted chemical biologists to pursue artificial nucleic acids that have catalytic activities. Such artificial nucleic acid enzymes may comprise either RNA or DNA. The term ‘nucleic acid enzyme’ is used to identify nucleic acids that have catalytic activity. Ribozymes are found in nature and mediate phosphodiester bond cleavage and formation and peptide bond formation.
The two ribbons symbolize the two phosphate-sugar chains, and the horizontal rods the pairs of bases holding the chains together. The vertical line marks the fiber axis. The two strands of the helix run in opposite directions, meaning that the 5′ end of one strand is paired up with the 3′ end of its matching strand.
Protein biosynthesis subject is defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, deficiency in mitochondrial translation. protein synthesis in the mitochondria, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acid and stroke-like episodes, protein synthesis directed by the nucleus, the ribosome, structure of transfer RNA (tRNA), initiation and amino acid tRNA synthase, elongation and peptidyltransferase ribozyme, termination, inhibitors of protein synthesis, proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm but destined for mitochondria, proteins destined for the nucleus, and proteins destined for other sites including the plasma membrane and secretion from the cell.
PNA are synthetic analog of DNA with a repeating N-(2-aminoethyl)-glycine peptide backbone connected to purine and pyrimidine nucleobases via a linker. The unique properties of PNA, including resistance to enzymatic digestion, higher bio stability combined with great hybridization affinity toward DNA and RNA, it has attracted great attention toward PNA- based technology as a promising approach for gene alteration. However, an important challenge in utilizing PNA is poor intracellular uptake. Some strategies have been developed to enhance the delivery of PNA in order to reach cognate site.
Nucleic acid probes are used not only to detect mRNA, but to assess interphase chromosomes in tumor cells. Probe is placed into contact with the sample under conditions that allow the probe sequence to hybridize with its complementary sequence. Probes may consist of either DNA or RNA, and they vary in length from short oligonucleotides to mutagenic chromosomal segments cloned into bacteria.
·Messenger RNA (mRNA)
·Transfer RNA (tRNA)
·Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Recombinant DNA technology is the joining together of DNA molecules from two different species. The recombined DNA molecule is inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations that are of value to science, medicine, agriculture, and industry. A geneticist is to isolate, characterize, and manipulate genes. Recombinant DNA technology is based primarily on two other technologies, cloning and DNA sequencing. Cloning is undertaken in order to obtain the clone of one particular gene or DNA sequence of interest. Next step after cloning is to find and isolate that clone among other members of the library (a large collection of clones). a segment of DNA has been cloned, its nucleotide sequence can be determined.
Temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The melting temperature is defined as the temperature at which half of the DNA strands are in the random coil or single-stranded (ssDNA) state. Tm depends on the length of the DNA molecule and its specific nucleotide sequence. DNA, when in a state where its two strands are dissociated.
Diseases are caused by pathogenic organisms such as viruses, bacteria, or fungus. Normally harmless but under certain conditions, they can be fatal and can cause death too. They can be spread from one person to another directly or indirectly. Infectious diseases are caused by infection-causing organisms that use the human body for surviving, reproducing and colonizing.
Molecular Biology is the field of biology that studies the composition, structure and interactions of cellular molecules such as nucleic acids and proteins that carry out the biological processes essential for the cell's functions and maintenance. It includes wide-ranging coverage of problems related to molecular and cell biology: