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Innovative sequencing process that should be fully automated. A nucleotide or deoxynucleotide sequence is broken up into short pieces in this process, and the fragments are then quantitated by hybridising to oligodeoxynucleotides on a solid platform.

uses oligonucleotide hybridization techniques to extract local sequence information from a DNA fragment, and then uses the resulting information to reconstruct the sequence. The most likely DNA fragment had to produce the set of hybridization probes, according to the rates of false positive and false negative hybridization, and then we may estimate the likelihood that this DNA fragment produced the hybridization data.






The branch of biology known as "molecular biology" examines the study of cellular molecules, such as nucleic acids and proteins, and how they interact to carry out the biological processes necessary for cell maintenance and function is known as molecular biology. Acomprehensive look at issues in molecular and cell biology

Topics covered include molecular enzymology, molecular virology, molecular immunology, transcriptomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, structural and functional genomics, and more.

Publications in molecular and cell biology include general interest reviews, mini-reviews, theoretical and experimental investigations, and computational analyses

The discovery of a natural RNA catalyst led chemical biologists to search for synthetic nucleic acids with catalytic properties. These synthetic nucleic acid enzymes can build DNA or ribozymes. Nucleic acids with catalytic activity are known as "nucleic acid enzymes." In nature, ribozymes are responsible for the breaking and formation of phosphodiester bonds as well as the production of peptide bonds.

catalytic function

Peptide bond in ribozymes


Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil are the four main nucleic acid bases for RNA. Typically, a purine and a pyrimidine form a hydrogen bond as part of the base pair. In DNA, guanine pairs with cytosine, adenine with thymine, and uracil is substituted for thiamine.

The horizontal rods represent the pairs of bases binding the two phosphate-sugar chains together securely, while the two ribbons stand for the two phosphate-sugar chains. The fibre axis is indicated by the vertical line. The 5′ end of one strand is coupled with the 3′ end of its corresponding strand because the two strands of the helix run in the opposite directions.

Crystallography using X-rays

The triple helix


The two ribbons symbolize the two phosphate-sugar chains, and the horizontal rods the pairs of bases holding the chains together firmly. The vertical line marks on the fiber axis. Those two strands of the helix run in the opposite directions, meaning that the 5′ end of one strand is paired up with the 3′ end of its matching strand.

  • X-ray crystallography

  • Triple helix


Protein synthesis is influenced by deficiencies in mitochondrial translation and oxidative phosphorylation. protein synthesis directed by the nucleus, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acid and stroke-like episodes, ribosome, transfer RNA (tRNA) structure, initiation of the amino acid tRNA synthase, elongation and peptidyltransferase ribozyme, termination, inhibitors of protein synthesis, proteins synthesised in the cytoplasm but destined for mitochondria, proteins destined for the nucleus, and the proteins.

DNA and RNA Genetic material


With a repeating N-(2-aminoethyl)-glycine peptide backbone coupled to purine and pyrimidine nucleobases via a linker, PNA are synthetic analogues of DNA. PNA-based technology has received a lot of interest as a viable method for gene modification due to the unique qualities of PNA, including resistance to enzymatic digestion, increased bio stability, and excellent hybridization affinity toward DNA and RNA. However, inadequate intracellular absorption presents a significant obstacle to the use of PNA. To improve PNA delivery and ensure that it reaches the appropriate spot, some solutions have been devised

The long, chain-like molecules known as polynucleotides, or nucleic acids, are made up of many virtually identical nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made up of a pentose (five-carbon) sugar connected to a phosphate group, which is then bonded to an aromatic base with nitrogen.




In addition to detecting mRNA, nucleic acid probes are also employed to evaluate the interphase chromosomal status of tumour cells. Under circumstances that permit the probe sequence to hybridise with its complementary sequence, the probe is brought into contact with the sample. Probes range in length from small oligonucleotides to mutagenic chromosomal regions cloned into bacteria, and they can be made of either DNA or RNA.

The use of nucleic acid probes is based on the identification of distinctive nucleotide sequences in a microorganism's DNA or RNA; these distinctive nucleotide'signatures' serve as substitutes for the presence of the organism itself. Bacterial ribosomes are crucial organelles that play a key role in the process of protein synthesis. They are highly conserved

A segment of DNA or RNA with a variable length is referred to as a hybridization probe.Peptide nucleic acids, Morpholino, locked nucleic acids, glycol nucleic acids, threose nucleic acids, and hexitol nucleic acids are examples of artificial nucleic acids.

Xeno nucleic acids and nucleobases

Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell, and, by directing the process of protein synthesis, they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing.

  • Protein synthesis

  • Information-carrying molecules


RNA comes in three different forms. All biological cells contain ribonucleic acid, a crucial biological macromolecule.

Message-Ring RNA (mRNA)rna

 transfer  rna(tRNA)

  RIBosomalRNA (rRNA)


Nucleic acids are the long linear or circular macromolecules, either DNA or various types of RNA that composed of linked nucleotides. These molecules are able to carry genetic information that directs all cellular functions


 Cellular function

DNA is repaired by the removal of  damaged bases followed by resynthesized of the excised region. Some lesions in DNA can be repaired by direct reversal of the damage, which may be a more efficient way of dealing with specific types of DNA damage that occur frequently.

  • Temperature
  • Homologous recombinant


In order to produce a mature mRNA, RNA processing requires appropriate splicing of a primary transcript and modification of the 5′- and 3′-ends. The emphasis will be on how these RNA-processing events interact with ongoing transcription.

At the 5' end, cap

To eliminate introns, use splicing.

 A polyA tail is added at the 3' end

DNA molecules from two distinct species are combined using recombinant DNA technology (rDNA). In order to create novel genetic combinations useful for science, agriculture, and industry, the recombined DNA molecules are injected into a host organism. A geneticist is responsible for isolating, describing, and modifying genes. DNA sequencing and cloning are the two other main technologies on which (rDNA) technology is based. The goal of cloning is to create copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence of interest. After cloning, the following step is to locate and isolate that clone from the other library members (a large collection of clones). The nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA segments can be determined.


Double stranded DNA's nucleic acid structure can be impacted by temperature (dsDNA). The temperature at which half of the DNA strands are in random coil or single stranded (ssDNA) form is known as the melting temperature. Tm is influenced by the nucleotide sequence and size of the DNA molecule. Thus, the two strands of DNA are in a state of dissociation the DNA molecule is molten

Pathogenic organisms, such as viruses or fungi, are what cause the diseases. When specific conditions exist, they can become harmful and even fatal despite their generally benign nature. They may pass directly or indirectly from one person to another. Infection-causing organisms that can live, reproduce, and colonise in the human body are what cause infectious diseases.

Infections of the Urinary Tract

neurological disease

Meningitis due to cryptococci

Diseases Caused by Bacteria

Infectious Viral Diseases